Bibliography: A


Alexander, Christopher; Ishikawa, Sara; Silverstein, Murray; with Jacobson, Max; Fiksdahl-King, Ingrid; Angel, Shlomo
A Pattern Language

Oxford University Press, 1977 1171 pp., illustrated
ISBN 0-19-501919-9

Keywords:
patterns, houses of worship, funerary-cemetery-burial sites, vernacular architecture, ancient, medieval, renaissance, modern, world survey

Comment:
A massive dictionary of the vocabulary of landscape and architecture; includes everything from sacred sites and graveyards to bed alcoves and compost bins. CY


Alexander, Christopher
The Timeless Way of Building
Oxford University Press


Anati, Emmanuel
Camonica Valley

originally published in French as
La Civilisation du Val Camonica

English translation by Linda Asher
[]-, 1960; Alfred A. Knopf, 1961
LC 61-14193

Keywords:
petroglyphs, labyrinths, symbolic landscaping, religion, myth, folklore, cosmology, prehistoric, Europe

Comment:
A source book on rock carvings of prehistoric Italy; contains excellent pictures, many not reproduced elsewhere. TL


Anderson, William
Green Man: The Archetype of our Oneness with the Earth
HarperCollins 1990


Anderson, William
Holy Places of the British Isles

Ebury Press, 1983


Andrews, W. S.
Magic Squares and Cubes

Dover Publications, 1960
ISBN 0-486-20658-0

Keywords:
magic squares

Comment:
The classic work on magic squares and cubes. Wide-ranging and thorough, yet comprehensible by non-mathematicians. MZ


Archibald, R. C.
see
Hambidge, Jay
Dynamic Symmetry: The Greek Vase


Ashe, Geoffrey
The Glastonbury Tor Maze

Gothic Image, 1979
16 pp. pamphlet, b&w illustrations

Keywords:
natural sacred sites, labyrinths, symbolic landscaping, ley lines, religion, myth, folklore, cosmology, religious iconography, number symbolism, occultism, sacred site tourism, prehistoric, Europe

Comment:
Presents the hypothesis that the human-carved ridges along Galastonbury Tor originally formed a seven-ringed labyrinth utilized in prehistoric rituals. CY


Aveni, Anthony F. (editor)
Archaeoastronomy in Pre-Columian Ameria

University of Texas, 1975
436 pp.

Keywords:
archaeoastronomical observatories, cosmology, prehistoric, ancient, Latin America

Comment:
"Written by leading specialists, the papers in this volume explore the newly developed interdisciplinary field of archaeoastronomy." (dj text)


Aveni, Anthony F.
Conversing with the Planets. How Science and Myth Invented the Cosmos

Times Books, 1992
255 pp., illustrations

Keywords:
archaeoastronomical observatories, cosmology, prehistoric, ancient, medieval, world survey

Comment:
The first popular work of astronomical anthropology, Interweaves the astronomy, mythology, and anthropology of ancient cultures by showing how to discover the harmony between their beliefs and their study of the sky. Focuses on the belief systems of the Mayans, Babylonians, Chinese, and other cultures from antiquity through the Renaissance to the present. The Book Shop in Penticton, B.C.


Aveni, Anthony F. (editor)
Empires of time: Calendars, Clocks & Cultures

Basic Books, 1989
371 pp., illustrated

Keywords:
archaeoastronomical observatories, cosmology, prehistoric, ancient, world survey


Aveni, Anthony F. and [-] Urton (editors)
Ethnoastronomy and Archaeoastronomy in the American Tropics

New York Acadmy of Sciences, 1982

Keywords:
archaeoastronomical observatories, cosmology, prehistoric, ancient, Latin America


Aveni, Anthony F. (editor)
The Lines of the Nazca

American Philosophical Society, 1990

Keywords:
symbolic landscaping, prehistoric, ancient, South America

Comment:
Includes a photo mosaic of the lines that Aveni studied. SD


Aveni, Anthony F. (editor)
Native American Astronomy

University of Texas, 1979
illustrated

Keywords:
archaeoastronomical observatories, cosmology, prehistoric, ancient, America


Aveni, Anthony F. (editor)
The Sky in Mayan Literature

Oxford Univ. Press, 1992
355 pp., illustrated

Keywords:
archaeoastronomical observatories, cosmology, prehistoric, ancient, Latin America


Aveni, Anthony F.
Skywatchers of Ancient Mexico

University of Texas Press, 1980; 2nd ed. 1983
355 pp., illustrated

Keywords:
archaeoastronomical observatories, cosmology, prehistoric, ancient, Latin America


Aveni, Anthony F.
Stairways to the Stars: Skywatching in Three Great Ancient Cultures

Wiley, 1997
355 pp., illustrated

Keywords:
archaeoastronomical observatories, cosmology, prehistoric, ancient, world survey


Aveni, Anthony F. (editor)
World Archaeoastronomy

University of Cambridge Press, 1989

Keywords:
archaeoastronomical observatories, cosmology, prehistoric, ancient, world survey


[Anonymous] (attributed to Hargrave Jennings, q.v.)
Phallic Worship
Privately Printed, 1880, London

Comment:
A fine tome on phallic worship. PR

Comment:
I have not seen this volume, but for reasons that will become obvious, it is worth mentioning that it is not listed in the series advertisements for the anonymous "Nature Worship and Mystical Series" a.k.a. "Phallic and Mystical Series" titles listed below. CY


Note: the following nine anonymous works, published under the series heading "Nature Worship and Mystical Series" a.k.a. "Phallic and Mystical Series," are listed in chronological order of publication rather than alphabetical order, for ease of understanding their relationship to one another. Although no author is given, they were all issued in matching cream vellum bindings (also described internally as Japanese parchment bindings) with red stamping and bevelled edges, limited to 500 copies each. For similar works of the same era, see also entries under the authors Clifford Howard, Hargrave Jennings, and Sha Rocco. For guesses about the true identity of the author, see "Byways in Bibliography" at the end of this section.

The titles are as Follows:

Four additional and related titles, discussed below in "Byways in Bibliography," are

[Anonymous] (attributed to Hargrave Jennings, q.v.)
Phallism: A Description of the Worship of Lingam-Yoni in Various Parts of the World, and in Different Ages, with an Account of Ancient and Modern Crosses, Particularly the Crux Ansata (or Handled Cross) and Other Symbols Connected with the Mysteries of Sex Worship
"Nature Worship and Mystical Series" [#1]
Privately Printed, 1889, London.
Reprinted as "Phallicism"; Privately Printed, circa 1890-91, London
viii + 107 pp., with a bibliography

Comment:
Red cover stamping: the word "Phallism." A later edition -- with different interior typesetting but matching binding -- is cover-stamped "Crux Ansata" and bears an image of an ankh. The reprint was offered for sale in later series advertisements under the title "Phallicism." CY


[Anonymous] (attributed to Hargrave Jennings, q.v.; attributed by the bibliographer Gershon Legman to the otherwise unknown Abisha S. Hudson, who is equated with the pseudonymous Sha Rocco, q.v.)
Ophiolatreia: An Account of the Rites and Mysteries Connected with the Origin, Rise, and Development of Serpent Worship in Various Parts of the Word, Enriched with Interesting Traditions, and a Full Description of the Celebrated Serpent Mounds and Temples, the Whole Forming an Exposition of One of the Phases of Phallic, or Sex Worship
"Nature Worship and Mystical Series" [#2]
Privately printed, 1889, London
viii + 103 pp.

Comment:
Red cover stamping: a caduceus. There are knotty problems associated with Legman's attribution of this title to Hudson rather than to Jennings. For details, see "Byways in Bibliography" at the end of this section. CY


[Anonymous] (attributed to Hargrave Jennings, q.v.)
Phallic Objects, Monuments, and Remains: Illustrations of the Rise and Development of the Phallic Idea (Sex Worship) and Its Embodiment in Works of Nature and Art
"Nature Worship and Mystical Series" [#3]
Privately Printed, 1889, London.
viii + 76 pp.

Comment:
Red cover stamping: a phallic-shaped tower. In the preface, the author refers to "our volumes, 'Phallism,' and 'Ophiolatreia," thus reinformcing the idea that one person wrote all the titles in this series. This volume is largely devoted to the round towers of Ireland, a subject that provides a definite thematic link between the anonymous author and Hargrave Jennings, whose book "Phallicism, Celestial and Terrestrial" also addresses the same topic. In addition, a chapter here covers Neolithic "holed stones" of Ireland. CY


[Anonymous] (attributed to Hargrave Jennings, q.v.)
Cultus Arborum: A Descriptive Account of Phallic Tree Worship with Illustrative Legends, Superstitions, ec.; Exhibiting Its Origin and Development Amongst the Eastern and Western Nations of the World, from the Earliest to Modern Times
"Nature Worship and Mystical Series" [#4]
Privately printed, [1890?], London.
??? pp.

Comment:
I do not have a copy of this one (YET!) but it is listed in the series ads as "in preparation" immediately after "Phallic Objects, Monuments, and Remains." A note in the advertisement states that "This work has a valuable bibliography which will be of the greatest use and value to the student of Ancient Faiths. It contains references to nearly five hundred works on Phallism and kindred subjects." CY


[Anonymous] (attributed to Hargrave Jennings, q.v.)
Fishes, Flowers, and Fire as Elements and Deities in the Phallic Faiths and Worship of the Ancient Religions of Greece, Babylon, Rome, India, etc., with Illustrative Myths and Legends
"Nature Worship and Mystical Series" [#5]
Privately printed, [1890?], London.
??? pp.

Comment:
I do not have a copy of this one (YET!) but it is listed in the series ads as "in preparation" immediately after "Cultus Arborum." CY


[Anonymous] (attributed to Hargrave Jennings, q.v.)
Archaic Rock Inscriptions: an Account of the Cup and Ring Marking on the Sculptural Stones of the Old and New Worlds
"Nature Worship and Mystical Series" [#6]
Privately printed, [1890?], London.
??? pp.

Comment:
I do not have a copy of this one (YET!) but it is listed in the series ads as "in preparation" immediately after "Fishes, Flowers, and Fire." CY


[Anonymous] (attributed to Hargrave Jennings, q.v.)
Nature Worship: An Account of Phallic Faiths and Practices, Ancient and Modern, Including the Adoration of the Male and Female Powers in Various Nations and the Sacti Puja of Indian Gnosticism
"Nature Worship and Mystical Series" [#7]
Privately printed, 1891, London.
105 pp.

Comment:
Red cover stamping: an Indian lingam-argha and the words "Nature Worship." The preface mentions the "exhaustion of the first edition of Phallicism [sic]" and implies that it will be reprinted. The text also refers to the author's previous books on "the Worship of Serpents, of Trees, Fishes, Flowers, Fire, etc." -- again reinforcing the claim that all titles in the series are by the same writer. CY


[Anonymous] (attributed to Hargrave Jennings, q.v.)
Phallic Miscellanies: Facts and Phases of Ancient and Modern Sex Worship, as Explained Chiefly in the Religions of India: an Appendix of Additional and Explanatory matter to the volumes Phallism, and Nature Worship
"Nature Worship and Mystical Series" [#8]
Privately printed, 1891, London
viii + 104 pp.

Comment:
Red cover stamping: the words "Phallic Miscellanies." A series advertisement notes that this is "by the author of Phallism." CY


[Anonymous] (attributed to Hargrave Jennings, q.v.)
Mysteries of the Rosie Cross, or the History of that Curious Sect of the Middle Ages, known as the Rosicrucians, with Examples of their Pretensions and Claims as Set Forth in the Writings of Their Leaders and Disciples
"PHALLIC and Mystical Series" [#9]
A. Reader, 1891, Orange Street, Red Lion Square, London.
[S. & J. Brawn, Printers, 13, Gate Street, Holborn, London, W.C.]
vi + 136 pp.

Comment:
Red cover stamping: a cross with a rose blossom at the crux atop a three-step pedestal and the words "Rosy [sic] Cross." This title, which seems to veer off the topic of "Sex Worship," however provides a definite thematic link between the anonymous author and Hargrave Jennings, whose book "Phallicism, Celestial and Terrestrial, Heathen and Christian, Its Connexion with the Rosicrucians and the Gnostics and its Foundation in Buddhism" attempts to document the sex-worship practices of the Rosicrucians. AT the conclusion of a lengthy and scholarly catalogue =history of Rosicrucian manuscripts, the author, in a single-chapter addendum, makes a case (by citing others, scrap-book style) that Freemasonry is an English guise for Rosicrucianism and also mentions Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, Wynn Westcott, and the Soc. Rosic. in Anglia in connection with modern Rosicrucianism. Furthermore, the advertisements in the rear of this work give the secondary title to the series; the books are now part of the "Phallic and Mystical Series." CY


Byways in Bibliography: About the Authorship of the "Nature Worship and Mystical Series" a.k.a. "Phallic and Mystical Series"

The Author

Advertisements and text in these books make it clear that the entire series is the work of one person. Most bibliographers attribute all nine volumes to Hargrave Jennings (q.v.), and i concur with this. The one bibliographer who believed othewrwise is Gershon Legman. He stated that "Ophiolatreia," the second volume in the set, was written by Abisha S. Hudson. Legman did not publish this theory, merely noting it on a piece of paper he slipped into his personal copy of the book in question. However, Legman's stature being what it is, his little note has entered several bibliographical databases and been published in numerous bookdealers' catalogues.

To understand why Legman reached this conclusion, it is necessary to know that the name Sha Rocco (q.v.) appears as the author of two books similar to those listed above, namely "The Masculine Cross" and "Sexual Mythology," and that Sha Rocco -- an obvious pseudonym -- is said by some bibliographers to have been the pen-name of one Abisha S. Hudson. However, no biographical data on Abisha S. Hudson has ever come to light, and it is highly likely that this was yet another pseudonym for the author of "The Masculine Cross."

Legman probably drew the conclusion that "Ophiolatreia" was written by Rocco/Hudson because (1) the writing style is the same, (2) in one edition of "Phallism" and in the 1891 book "Mysteries of the Rosie Cross" there is an advertisement for a "new" and "cream vellum binding" edition of Sha Rocco's "The Masculine Cross" which places it before "Phallism," indicating its earlier publication date, and (3) circa 1891 edition of "The Masculine Cross" is a reprint of the 1874 Sha Rocco book bound to match the "Nature Worship and Mystical Series" / "Phallic and Mystical Series" titles [making it #0 in the series]. Here is what the bookdealer Peter Cockrell (antiques@cockrell.co.uk) says of this reprint:

[In] reference [to] your web page describing "Nature Worship & Mystical Series" and to your comments on the inclusion of "The Masculine Cross" in the series:

We have a copy of "Masculine Cross" which matches your description of having cream vellum bindings with red stamping and which lists, in the back, "Nature Worship & Mystical Series" -- "only a very limited number - privately printed" -- and which then lists the following titles:

NATURE WORSHIP
OPHIOLATREIA
PHALLIC OBJECTS
FISHES, FLOWERS & FIRE
CULTUS ARBORUM
PHALLIC MISCELLANIES
ARCHAIC ROCK INSCRIPTIONS
MYSTERIES OF THE ROSIE CROSS.

This information would seem to place our book, very clearly, in the series.

So there are two problems with Legman's theory:

(1) "Ophiolatreia" is part of the "Nature Worship and Mystical Series" and in ads and text it is made clear that this series is the work of a single author. Thus, if the otherwse unknown Abisha S. Hudson wrote "Ophiolatreia," he would have had to have written the entire series, which Legman does not claim for him.

(2) Most bibliographers attribute the nine volume "Nature Worship and Mystical Series" / "Phallic and Mystical Series" set (minus "The Mascuine Cross") to Hargrave Jennings, but in fact the writing style and subject matter of all ten volumes in the series (including "The Mascuine Cross" by Sha Rocco) are virtually identical to those found in Jennings' "Phallisicm, Celestial and Terrestrial," to which he affixed his real name.

Fitting this data together, it is clear that three contradictory suppositions arise:

(A) Inclusion of "The Masculine Cross" by Sha Rocco in the "Nature Worship and Mystical Series" / "Phallic and Mystical Series" by Jennings is an unexplained anomoly and the other nine books in the series (including "Ophiolatreia") were written by Hargrave Jennings, as most bibliographers prior to myself have stated;

(B) Inclusion of "The Masculine Cross" by Sha Rocco in the "Nature Worship and Mystical Series" / "Phallic and Mystical Series" implies that Rocco / Hudson -- not Hargrave Jennings -- wrote the entire series. This theory has not been published by any bibliographers, including Legman, who merely attributed "Ophiolatreia" to Hudson;

(C) Inclusion of "The Masculine Cross" by Sha Rocco in the "Nature Worship and Mystical Series" / "Phallic and Mystical Series" by Jennings is a tacit admission by the author himself that the pseudonymous "Sha Rocco" who wrote "The Masculine Cross" in 1874 is none other than Hargrave Jennings, who wrote "Phallicism, Celestial and Terrestrial" in 1884 and is widely believed to have written the entire "Nature Worship and Mystical Series" / "Phallic and Mystical Series" of 1889-1891.

I have favoured theory (C) since first taking up this problem, but have hesitated to go up against so respected an authority as Gershon Legman. When and if further information on this one-hundred-year-old literary mystery is forthcoming, i shall present it here.

Phallic Worship:

This title (see above for full details) was issued in 1880, about six years after "The Masculine Cross" by Sha Rocco [1874] and about nine years before "Phallism" (a.k.a. Phallicism"), the first title in the anonymous "Nature Worship and Mystical Series" / "Phallic and Mystical Series."

Hargrave Jennings, born in 1817, was 54 years old when "The Masculine Cross" by Sha Rocco was issued, 63 years old when "Phallic Worship" was issued, and 72 years old when "Phallism" (a.k.a. Phallicism"), the first title in the anonymous "Nature Worship and Mystical Series" / "Phallic and Mystical Series," was issued.

I believe that the two earlier books were individual attempts to cover the material that he later addressed in the uniformly bound and issued "Nature Worship and Mystical Series" / "Phallic and Mystical Series."

The Missing Books in the Series:

In the advertising matter at the back of "Mysteries of the Rosie Cross," after the listings of the six (out of eight) earlier titles still available in what was suddenly retitled the "Phallic and Mystical Series," there are advertisements for three further books: They are as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
In the Press.
A new work on THE MASCULINE CROSS Theory, and
recent discoveries connected with Phallicism
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Other Works.
MATRIMONIAL CEREMONIES DISPLAYED
-- Wherein are exhibited the various Customs, Odd Pranks,
Whimsical Tricks and Surprising Pracyices of near one
hundred different Kingdoms and Peoples in the World,
now used in the Celebration and Consummation of Matri
mony, collected from the Papers of a Rambling
Batchelor,
with the Adventures of Sir Harry Fitzgerald
and his Seven Wives. Cr. 8vo, Japanese Parchment,
6s.
The above volume describes the extensive and extraordinary ceremonies
of the differnt nations of the world, including an interesting account of
the more free and easy rites of the savage tribes. There will also be found
an entertaining description of the ceremonies of the Indians in America,
at the time of its first colonisation by the Europeans
FLAGELLATION, History of, among different Nations,
a Narrative of the Strange Customs and Cruelties of the
Romans, Greeks, Egyptians, etc., with an Account of its
Practice among the Early Christians as a Religious Stimu-
lant and Corrector of Morals, also Anecdotes of Remark-
able Cases of Flogging and of celebrated Flagellants. Cr.
6vo., parchment, 6s.
A curious history of whipping inflicted by force, and voluntarily prac-
ticed by the Monks, Heathens, etc., with Anecdotes of its use by Kings,
Bishops, Abbots, etc.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Hargrave Jennings died in 1890, as "Mysteries of The Rosie Cross" and the new edition of "The Masculine Cross" were at press.

It is worthy of note that

(1) The title page of "Mysteries of the Rosie Cross" lists the publisher as "A. Reader" rather than "Privately Printed," as was given on all of the earlier books in the series.

2) The series title has inexplicably and abruptly been changed from the "Nature Worship and Mystical Series" to the "Phallic and Mystical Series."

3) For the first time, the name of the printer (S. & J. Brawn, Printers, 13, Gate Street, Holborn, London, W.C.) is boldly displayed on the last page of the text.

These three oddities would seem to indicate that the printer issued the book after Jennings' death and was subtly indicating to buyers where additional copies and remaindered books in the series could be obtained.

I have never seen the projected series titles "Matrimonial Ceremonies Displayed" or "Flagellation" offered for sale in the antiquarian book trade, and, believing Jennings to be the author and original anonymous publisher of the works, i think it unlikely that these titles were issued after his death.

If anyone has seen copies of the two "missing" volumes, please let me know!

Byways in Bibliography 2012, The Wikipedia Story

In 1994, when i first published my theory that Hargrave Jennings was the author of the "Nature Worship and Mystical Series," i was the sole promoter of this theory, and i worked hard to make my case, especially as it contradicted the bibliographical notes of Gershon Legman, an expert in the field. To my surprise, with the passage of time, no contentions have been published against the logic of my case, and, even more gratifyingly, institutions such as Google Books now routinely attribute the authorship of these titles to Hargrave Jennings, as if it had always been so.

One reason for this is that today's scholars tend to take the word of Wikipedia as fact -- and in Wikipedia, my theory is given free and unopposed expression.

However, it should be noted that the author of the Wikipedia article attributing these works to Hargrave Jennings, was ... none other than myself.

Now, at one time there was a link from the Wikipedia Hargrave Jennings article back to this page as the source of the attributions, but in 2011 a rather angry editor removed the link, saying that this page of mine was not a "reliable source" according to Wikipedia standards. Thus Wikipedia divested itself of the source for the information that i had contributed to it, considering the information itself "reliable" but this page "unreliable."

Wikipedia is a nightmare of its own making, and i don't wish to beat that dead horse, but speaking as a researcher, i expect to be acknowledged for the work i have done, as as long as Wikipedia lists Hargrave Jennings as the author of the books for which i have listed him as the author, i will work for the reinstatement of the link to this page.

Wikipedia cannot have it both ways. Either my site is "reliable" and the Wikipedia article should acknowledge it, or the information comes from an "unreliable" source and must be entirely deleted from Wikipedia.

The Bibliography is organized alphabetically by author's last name

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